Personal Data Breach At Government Agencies – What Measures Can Be Taken? – Data Protection | #government | #hacking | #cyberattack

In the third week of May 2022, the public’s attention was
once again roused over an alleged data leak involving the personal
information of 22.5 million Malaysians of the age between 18 and 82
years. It was reported that such personal information was allegedly
leaked from the database of the National Registration Department
(“NRD“). The allegation, however, has
been denied by the Home Minister, Datuk Seri Hamzah Zainuddin, who
said that the dataset did not belong to the NRD. Local tech forums
such as Amanz and Lowyat.Net reported that the 160 GB size of
database is put on sale on the dark web for US$10,000.

Disappointed but not surprised – is probably the accurate public
response towards the breach, considering that this is the second
time that an alleged breach at the NRD has been reported when the
same thing happened back in September last year involving the sale
of personal details of 4 million Malaysians, stolen from NRD and
the Inland Revenue Board.

Impact of Personal Data Breach

This massive personal data breach has put the security and
interests of the citizens at stake, where it is evident through the
rising number of scammers on a daily basis. Personal data such as
names, phone numbers, addresses and bank account details have made
it easier for scammers to convince people that they are officers
from banks, courts or police. Although the cyber scam was
yesterday’s news, many people are still falling for it as the
scammers’ tricks keep developing and becoming more unsuspecting
in duping the victims due to the scammers having access to the
victims’ personal data through these breaches. It is an even
scarier fact that the personal data are on the dark web’s
market which is the playground for hackers to facilitate criminal
activities and purchase of illegal products and services such as
money laundering, drugs, human trafficking, identity theft,
pornography, counterfeit money, fake passports and other illegal
activities involving personal data.

Not only that, breach of personal data can also jeopardize the
national security. For example, in 2016, Russian operatives had
purchased stolen information about private citizens of the US,
which were then used to open the US bank and PayPal accounts, buy
access on the US-based servers, purchase Facebook ads for political
rallies and pose as Americans on social media accounts to interfere
with the US political system, including the 2016 presidential

Malaysia’s Position

In 2013, Malaysia enforced the Malaysian Personal Data
Protection Act 2010 (“PDPA“) which
spells out the 7 data protection principles to regulate and
safeguard the processing of personal data. Breach of any of the
said principles by any data user shall amount to a criminal offense
under the PDPA and is punishable by a fine of up to RM 300,000
and/or up to 2 years imprisonment. Nevertheless, the PDPA is only
applicable to commercial transactions and pursuant to Section 3(1)
of the PDPA, the Federal and State Governments are not subjected to
the PDPA. Hence, it can be said that people have no recourse
against the government for the breach under the PDPA.

Data Breach Involving Government Agencies in Other
Jurisdictions and How They Rectify It

There are a number of reported instances where governments in
other countries have admitted the vulnerabilities in their system
which has caused the leak of their citizens’ personal data. To
name a few, in September 2021, there was a cyber-attack on the
France government’s ‘France-Visas’ website where the
personal details of individuals looking to visit or emigrate to the
country had been breached. According to the French government
ministries, they have immediately implemented measures to secure
their visa website to prevent further attacks. The affected
individuals have also been notified of the data breach and been
given recommendations to protect their personal data and online

In February 2020, the government of Quebec, Canada admitted to a
data breach potentially impacting around 360,000 teachers employed
in the Canadian province. It was reported that the impacted
individuals are given the choice to apply for free credit
monitoring and would be notified by the provincial government if
their information was disclosed. A dedicated breach hotline has
also been set up to sort out the burst.

What Can Be Done?

Despite the limited scope of the PDPA and its non-applicability
to the government, there are certain measures that can be taken
through legislative reforms to mitigate the risks of the data
breach. With regard to the government’s accountability, merely
amending the PDPA to include a certain degree of liability on the
government agencies in safeguarding the personal data will not do
the trick. In order to have a better protection of the personal
data, the lawmakers may need to consider adopting the measures
taken by other countries which have been proactive in handling
cases of personal data breach by their governments, or better yet,
enforcing a whole new specific legislation, policy or guidelines
which binds the government on its commitment to protect the
personal data of the citizens.

In Canada, apart from the Personal Information Protection and
Electronic Documents Act (PIPEDA) which covers the handling of
personal information by private sectors, there is also the Privacy
Act (“the Act“) which is applicable to
federal government institutions that collect, process, use, retain
and disclose the personal information of a person. The Act has a
schedule listing all the federal government institutions which
would be subject to the Act including departments, ministries,
agencies, as well as government-linked corporations and their
wholly-owned subsidiaries. The Act also clearly spells out how the
government institutions may handle personal information, from the
collection, use, accuracy, retention and disclosure. Not only that,
the Act also provide for complaints from data subject and
investigations procedures which shall be handled by the Privacy

Apart from that, the approach taken under the European
Union’s General Data Protection Regulation
(“GDPR“) in relation to the public
sector can also be adopted. One of the requirements under the GDPR
with regard to the government agencies that process personal data
is to appoint a Data Protection Officer
(“DPO“) who will be responsible, among
others, to monitor the compliance of the government agency with the
GDPR and other data protection provisions and policies.
Furthermore, the GDPR also require the public sector bodies to
adhere with specific transparency obligations by providing the data
subjects with information such as the identity, contact details and
the representatives of the government agencies who are the
controller of the personal data, the contact details of the DPO and
the purposes of the processing of the personal data as well as the
legal basis for the processing.

In addition to that, regular training and awareness programmes
should also be conducted among the public officials on data
protection and cyber security protocols. By now, the officials
should have known that the use of weak password such as
‘12345’ will no doubt give hackers an easy way to break
into the government database system and lead to leak of personal
data. Not only that, data subjects should also be given their
individual right to be compensated from the data users which should
include the government agencies for the loses suffered due to the
data breach. Last but not least, the government agencies should
improve the quality of their database security by investing on an
improved cloud-based software, hiring qualified IT officials and
improving their IT ticketing strategy to prevent any potential
cyber-attacks to go unnoticed.


Despite being ranked among the top ten countries with high
commitment to cybersecurity in the Global Cybersecurity Index 2020,
Malaysia still has a lot to improve in the area of privacy and
personal data protection. The worrying increase in the number of
personal data breaches may require urgent amendment to the PDPA or
a new legislation, policy or guidelines for better protection of
the citizens’ personal data. A robust and transparent
investigation must also be conducted to ensure data breach cases
are effectively handled with a just outcome.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general
guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought
about your specific circumstances.

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